All cities face the challenge of developing and providing efficient, healthy and environmentally friendly mobility. City dwellers are more often exposed to air pollution, noise and heavy traffic than people living outside urban areas. Cities are also a prime source of greenhouse gas emissions, which contribute to climate change. A large part of these emissions comes from transport. Moving away from inefficient and polluting transport modes is one possible way of reducing these societal burdens. Exploring ‘first mile’ and ‘last mile’ mobility options, which may be used to complete a journey by public transport, for example, can help make this shift happen by increasing the attractiveness and efficiency of sustainable modes of transport. ‘Only mile’ options for travelling very short distances can also help. We gather these first/last/only mile modes under the label F/L/O mile options.

This report provides a comprehensive overview of all main F/L/O mile options for passenger and freight transport. It describes their urban mobility and policy contexts and presents the current state of scientific knowledge on their environment and health effects. It also describes the limits of F/L/O mile options and the framework in which they can be most effective. The objective is to help policy makers, planners and transport users make well-informed choices. F/L/O mile options — even if used in an urban context — are also relevant for longer distance transport, as they may influence the choice of transport modes for longer trips that originate or end in cities, both for passenger and freight transport. This also means that leadership at the city level can shape the mobility system beyond urban boundaries.

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