The report presents findings of the study on the social dimension of the future EU transport system regarding users and passengers. Transport evolves and modernises along major trends: the green and digital transitions, demographic change but also the recent COVID-19 pandemic. These trends will have a considerable impact on transport with profound consequences for users and passengers. Different groups of people have different needs as transport users and it is important to ensure that the transport system is inclusive and available to all.

The issues are complex and have multiple overlapping dimensions as different users, needs, geographies, Member States/legal contexts, modes, business models and wider trends all interact. This study maps the challenges and opportunities posed by the modernisation of the transport system to different groups of transport users in terms of affordability, reliability, and accessibility, and reviews possible solutions that ensure users are at the centre of the future transport system.

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